Drilling machine is a series of mechanical equipment that drives drilling tools to drill into the formation in the process of oil drilling, also called drilling machine. We are often standing on the earth in the towering derrick, just a part of the drilling machine, below you come together to learn the drilling machine eight systems.
2、Oil Rig Concept
Drilling machine is a series of mechanical equipment that drives drilling tools to drill into the formation in the process of oil drilling, also called drilling machine. The main function is to drive the drilling tool to break the rock at the bottom of the well, and to run or raise the drilling tool in the well.
3、Eight systems of drilling rig
Generally, there are eight systems (lifting system, rotary system, drilling fluid circulation system, transmission system, control system, monitoring and display instrument, power drive system, drilling substructure and auxiliary equipment system) for drilling rigs, which should have tripping capacity, rotary drilling capacity and circulation well flushing capacity. Its main equipment includes: derrick, crown block, winch, traveling block, hook, rotary table, swivel (power swivel) and drilling pump (conventionally called eight drilling rigs on site), power machine (diesel engine, motor, gas turbine), linkage machine, solid control equipment, well control equipment, etc.
In order to lift and lower the drilling tool, run the casing, control the WOB and feed the drilling tool, the drilling tool is equipped with a lifting system. The hoisting system includes winch, auxiliary brake, crown block, traveling block, hook, wire rope, rings, elevators, tongs, slips and other tools. During lifting, the winch drum is wound with steel wire rope, the crown block and traveling block form a auxiliary pulley block, and the hook is lifted to realize the lifting of drilling tools through lifting rings, elevators and other tools. During lowering, the drilling tool or casing string is lowered by its own weight, and the lowering speed of the hook is controlled by the brake mechanism and auxiliary brake of the winch. In normal drilling, the feeding speed of the drilling tool is controlled by the brake mechanism, and a part of the weight of the drilling tool is applied to the bit as the WOB to break the rock.
Rotary system is a typical system of rotary drilling rig, which drives the drilling tool to rotate to break the rock stratum. The rotary system includes rotary table, faucet and drilling tool. According to the different drilling, the composition of drilling tools is also different, generally including Kelly, drill pipe, drill collar and bit, in addition to centralizer, shock absorber and matching joint. Among them, bit is a tool for directly breaking rocks, including scraper bit, cone bit, diamond bit and so on. The weight and wall thickness of the drill collar are very large, which is used to apply WOB to the drill bit. The drill pipe connects the surface equipment with the downhole equipment and transmits torque. The section of Kelly is generally square. The rotary table drives the whole drill string and drill bit to rotate through Kelly. The swivel is a typical part of rotary drilling machine. It not only bears the weight of the drilling tool, but also realizes the rotary movement, and also provides a channel for high-pressure mud.
6、 Circulation System
In order to bring the broken cuttings from the bottom bit to the ground in time for further drilling, and to cool the bit to protect the well wall and prevent drilling accidents such as well collapse and lost circulation, the rotary drilling rig is equipped with a circulation system. The circulation system includes drilling pump, ground manifold, mud tank, mud purification equipment, etc., including high-pressure manifold, riser, water hose, mud purification equipment including shale shaker, desander, desilter, centrifuge, etc.
The drilling pump sucks the mud from the mud tank. The mud pressurized by the drilling pump flows through the high-pressure manifold, standpipe and water hose, enters the faucet, goes down to the bottom of the well through the hollow drilling tool, ejects from the water hole of the drill bit, carries the cuttings back to the ground through the annular space between the well and the drilling tool, and the mud returned from the bottom of the well passes through the mud purification equipment at all levels to remove the solid content, and then heavy Reuse.
The hoisting system, circulation system and rotation system are the three major working units of the drilling rig. They can complete the drilling operation by coordinating their work. In order to provide power to these working units, the drilling rig needs to be equipped with power equipment. The power equipment of the drilling rig includes diesel engine, AC motor and DC motor. Diesel engine is suitable for drilling wells in remote areas without power grid. AC motor depends on industrial power grid or needs diesel engine to generate alternating current. DC motor needs diesel engine to drive DC generator to generate direct current. At present, the more common situation is that diesel engine drives AC generator to generate alternating current, and then the alternating current is converted into direct current through silicon controlled rectifier.
7、 Drive System
The transmission system transforms the force and motion provided by the power equipment, and then transfers and distributes them to each working unit to meet the different power requirements of each working unit. The transmission system generally includes decelerating mechanism, shifting mechanism, reversing mechanism and parallel mechanism between multi power machines. The drilling rigs driven directly by diesel engines are usually driven in a unified way, and the transmission system is relatively complex. The drilling rigs driven by AC and DC motors are mostly driven by each unit individually or in groups, and the transmission system is greatly simplified.
8、 Control System
In order to ensure the coordinated work of the three working units of the drilling rig to meet the requirements of drilling technology, the drilling rig is equipped with a control system. The control methods include mechanical control, gas control, electrical control and liquid control. At present, the common control mode of drilling rig is centralized gas control. The driller can complete almost all the drilling control through the drilling console of the rig supervisor, such as the clutch of the main clutch, the parallel operation of each power machine, the start and stop of drawworks, rotary table and drilling pump, the high and low speed control of drawworks, etc.
Derrick and substructure
Derrick and substructure are used to support and install various drilling equipment and tools, and provide drilling operation site. The derrick is used to install the crown block, hanging traveling block, hook, swivel and drilling tool, bear the drilling work load, and discharge the stand pipe; the substructure is used to install the power unit, winch, rotary table and support the derrick, and the rotary table is used to suspend the drilling tool to provide the height space between the rotary table and the ground, so as to install the necessary BOP and facilitate the mud circulation.
In order to ensure the safety and normal operation of drilling, the drilling rig also includes other auxiliary equipment, such as BOP unit, generator unit providing lighting and auxiliary power for drilling, air compression equipment providing compressed air, water supply and oil supply equipment, etc.
Note: This article is excerpted from the Internet. If you have any questions, please contact the editor.